9. Combat

9.1. Land combat


Province battle board in staggered layout of tiles (as in the main map) with 24 tiles side length, 3 tile (capital is 6 tiles) wide city


  • 5 battle turns per game turn at most
  • If the city is occupied at any time during the battle, the attacker has won. Battle is over
  • If all attacking units are destroyed or fleeing or the player aborts the attack, the defender has won. Battle is over.
  • Otherwise (city not taken but attacking units are still present), the battle continues the next turn keeping the actual strategic position but with reinforcement possible

Damage model

  • Two units are in combat with attack values \(a_i\) and strengths \(s_i\)
  • Damage dealt is then \(d_i=\mbox{max}(s_i, c(s_j a_j / a_i + \Delta )),j\neq i\) or in words: a constant modifier (\(c\) about 0.1) times the weighted strength of the other unit (weight is ratio of attack values) plus a noise term math:Delta with variance approx. 0.2 but which cannot be higher than our own strength in total
  • Damage is calculated for both units and then subtracted from their strength
  • Units with less than 30% strength will not attack anymore but flee automatically

No auto resolution of battle

  • Actually there is auto battle, you can let an officer take over which will use AI routines. But apart from that the real model is used – no other calculations.

Special bonuses

  • Encirclement factor of provinces = Number of own surrounding provinces minus Number of provinces of the enemy divided by the sum of both gives up to 50% bonus for attacker or defender. Reason: avoid isolated provinces in foreign territory, favor straight front lines
  • Sea invasion ignores Encirclement factor but gives fixed 20% penalty to invader because it is more difficult.
  • How to add all bonuses? Additive? Multiplicative? Limit?

9.2. Strategic Combat

9.3. Tactical Combat

  • Move and/or attack. Attack ends movement.
  • Responsive fire maximally two times per turn.
  • Entrenchment (defending bonus, if not moved last turn, only for infantry)
  • terrain hills, mountains, cities and across river give a +1 bonus each (cumulative) on defense strength (i.e. attack value when in defending position)